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中英对照阀门名称,结构种类、材质、认证
发布者:本站 发布时间:2007/11/15 13:58:40 阅读:3244次 双击自动滚屏


阀门结构种类、材质、认证
Valve Design, Materials, and Approvals






阀门结构种类
Valve Design Choices
  1. 多回转阀门
  1. Multi-Turn
   a) 闸阀
   a) Gate
   b) 截止阀/角-截止阀
   b) Globe/Angle-Globe
  2. 90o回转阀门
  2. Quarter-Turn
   a) 球阀
   a) Ball
   b) 蝶阀-弹性阀座
   b) Butterfly-resilient seated
  3. 止回阀(阻止倒流)
  3. Check (backflow prevention)
   a) 旋启式
   a) Swing
   b) 升降式
   b) Lift
   c) 弹簧驱动式
   c) Spring-actuated
  4. 连接端口
  4. End connections


材质
Materials
  1. 青铜(压力150 psi下温度可达287oC;温度65oC下压力可达600 psi),通径范围:DN8至DN80
  1. Bronze (up to 550°F at 150 psi/up to 600 psi at 150°F) 1/4"-3"
  2. 铸铁(压力250 psi下温度可达232oC;温度37oC下压力可达500 psi),通径范围:DN50至DN600
  2. Cast Iron (up to 450°F at 250 psi/up to 500 psi at 100°F) 2"-24"
  3. 球墨铸铁(压力125 psi下温度可达343oC;温度37oC下压力可达600 psi),通径范围:DN50至DN300
  3. Ductile Iron (up to 650°F at 125 psi/up to 600 psi at 100°F) 2"-12"
  4. 不锈钢(压力125 psi下温度可达343oC;温度37oC下压力可高达2000 psi),通径范围:DN8至DN300
  4. Stainless Steel (up to 650°F at 125 psi/up to 2000 psi at 100°F) 1/4"-12"


认证
Approvals
  1. 美国阀门和管件制造商标准化协会(MSS)
  1. Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)
  2. 消防安全认证(UL®和FM)
  2. Fire protection (UL® and FM)
  3. 州立标准和地方标准
  3. State and local codes.
多回转阀门结构特点 (1)
Multi-Turn Valve Design Detail (1)





  a) 闸阀
  a) Gate Valves


   优点-推荐
   Positive Features - Recommendations
    1) 适用于开启-关闭管道系统
   1) Good choice for on-off service
    2) 完全流通-低压降
   2) Full flow-low pressure drop
    3) 双向
   3) Bidirectional

    缺点
   Disadvantages
    1) 不能用于节流;只能用于完全开启或完全关闭
   1) Not for throttling; use fully opened or fully closed
    2) 金属对金属阀座意味着不适用于频繁操作。金属对金属结构也不适用于无气泡阀座。
   2) Metal-to-metal seating means not best choice for frequent operation. Bubble-tight seating should not be expected with metal-to-metal design.
    3) 难于自动控制
   3) Difficult to automate.

    楔板和阀座结构
   Wedge and Seat Designs
    1) 实心楔板对于所有建筑物管道系统来说,都是最好的选择。现代铸造技术和机械加工工艺使得实心楔板在许多管道系统中的工作性能表现优异。
   1) Solid wedge best choice for all building services. Modern foundry and machining controls enable the solid wedge to give good performance in a broad range of services.
    2) 金属实心楔板阀座对阀体上的金属阀座这种结构形式在建筑物管道系统中应用最普遍。橡胶涂层实心楔板(弹性楔板)在消防系统和市政冷水管道系统中应用越来越流行。弹性楔板结构具有无气泡阀座密封 功能,但是水温最高不能超过71oC。
   2) Metal solid wedge seating against metal seat in body is the most common in building service piping. Rubber-coated solid wedge (resilient wedge) has become popular in fire protection and municipal cold water service. The resilient wedge design offers bubble-tight seating, but is limited to 160°F water service.

    阀杆结构
   Stem Designs
    1) 明杆-内螺纹结构对于青铜多回转阀门来说是最通用、首选的结构形式。在完全开启的“后阀座”状态下,阀杆螺纹能够避免与流体介质接触。开启阀门时,阀杆上升,因此在阀杆上升的地方就必须要有足够的空间才能够防止阀杆表面遭受损坏。阀杆位置的高低,指明了阀门处于开启或关闭状态。
    *不推荐在阀门压力增加时补充填料。
   1) Rising stem-inside screw is the most common and preferred design for bronze multi-turn valves. In the fully open “back seated” position*, the stem threads are protected from the circulation of flow media. Because the stem rises as the valve is opened, clearance must be provided and stem orientation should
protect it from external damage. The stem position indicates to the observer if the valve is opened or closed.
   *Repacking while valve is pressurized is not recommended.

    2) 暗杆-内螺纹结构用于青铜和铸铁闸阀。这种结构形式比明杆更加紧凑,阀杆螺纹总是暴露在流体介质中,容易受到侵蚀或腐蚀。这种结构的阀门无法显示开启/关闭状态。
   2) Non-rising-inside screw stems are used in bronze and iron gate valves. While they are more compact than rising stem valves, the stem threads are always exposed to flowing media, allowing for possible erosion/corrosion. Open/close indication is not provided with this design.
多回转阀门结构特点 (2)
Multi-Turn Valve Design Detail (2)





   3) 明杆-外螺纹和支架结构是铸铁多回转阀门的首选结构。由于螺纹位于阀门外部,有利于防止被流体介质腐蚀,有利于润滑油的加注。当阀杆上升时,要留心阀杆的上方有足够的空间,防止螺纹受到损坏。阀杆的高低能够指示阀门处于开启或关闭状态。
   3) Rising stem-outside screw and yoke is preferred in iron multi-turn valves. threads are external to the valve, protecting them from flow media and enabling lubrication. Care should be taken for clearance as the stem rises so that threads are not damaged. The stem position provides indication that valve is opened or closed.

   阀体-阀盖连接方式
   Body-Bonnet Connection
   1)管接头式阀盖: 对于建筑物管道系统中的青铜多回转阀门,管接头式阀盖是值得推荐的结构形式,但是,并不是所有类型的阀门都需要这种结构。管接头式阀盖具有一定的强度,易于安装和拆卸。
   1) Union bonnet is recommended as the best choice for building services piping for bronze multi-turn valves, although not all styles offer this design. The union bonnet offers strength and ease of assembly-disassembly.   
   2) 螺纹旋进式阀盖:通常用于轻型管道系统和小尺寸青铜多回转阀门中。
   2) Threaded-in bonnet is common in lighter-duty services and smaller sizes of bronze multi-turn valves.
   3) 螺栓阀体式阀盖:铸铁多回转阀门的主要结构形式。这种带衬垫连接方式坚固耐用,并且易于安装和拆卸。
   3) Bolted body-bonnet connection is the principal design used in iron multi-turn valves. This gasketed joint is strong and easy to assemble/disassemble.

  b) 截止阀/角式截止阀
  b) Globe/Angle-Globe Valves

   优点-推荐
   Positive Features - Recommendations
   1) 推荐作为节流阀使用
   1) Recommended for throttling applications
   2) 如果配置的是弹性阀座,就能够具备真正的无气泡关闭功能。
   2) Positive bubble-tight shutoff when equipped with resilient seating
   3) 适用于频繁操作
   3) Good for frequent operation

   缺点
   Disadvantages
   1) 流程中具有明显的压降
   1) Significant pressure drop due to flow path
   2) 成本比其它种类阀门高
   2) More costly than alternate valves

   阀瓣和阀座结构
   Disc and Seat Designs
   1) 弹性(软)阀座阀瓣是首选结构。但是对于高温管道系统,高精密度节流,或流体介质具有研磨性等应用环境,则合金金属就是更好的选择。对于大多数管道系统而言,聚四氟乙烯是最好的弹性阀瓣材料,但是在冷水环境中,橡胶具有更好的柔软性。
   1) Resilient (soft) seat discs are preferred over metalto-metal except where temperatures, very close throttling or abrasive flow make metal alloy seating a better choice. TFE is the best resilient disc material for most services, although rubber’s softness gives good performance in cold water.
   2) 插入式阀瓣/阀座:通常采用硬度较大的金属合金,特别适用于需要精确节流,且流体介质温度超过聚四氟乙烯的温度上限(260oC),或者流体包括研磨剂。铸铁截止阀通常采用半插入式青铜阀瓣/阀座结构。
   2) Plug-type disc/seat, often with harder metal alloys, is best for very close throttling, when media temperature is beyond the range of TFE (500°F) or when abrasive flow is involved. Iron globe valves most commonly use semi-plug bronze disc/seat design.
   3) 自动蒸汽截止止回阀和角式截止阀适用于中压蒸汽管道系统,此时半插入式阀瓣的滑动作用使得阀门能够起到关闭阀、节流阀和止回阀的作用。
   3) Automatic steam stop-check angle-globe valves are best on medium-pressure steam service where the sliding action of the semi-plug disc assembly permits the valve to serve as a shut-off valve, a throttling valve and a check valve
90o回转阀门的结构特点 (1)
Quarter-Turn Valve Design Detail (1)






  a) 球阀
  a) Ball Valves


   优点-推荐
   Positive Features - Recommendations
   1) 无气泡关闭功能的弹性材料(聚四氟乙烯)阀座
   1) Bubble-tight shut-off from resilient (TFE) seats
   2) 快速90o回转开启/关闭,扭矩与阀座密封无关
   2) Quick 90° open/close, not torque-dependent for seating
   3) 流体经过阀门时阻力小,直接通过,且可双向流动
   3) Straight-through unobstructed flow, bidirectional
   4) 选择不缩径全流道结构时,压降最小
   4) Minimal pressure drop if full-port selected
   5) 可用作节流阀(根据应用环境决定)
   5) Can be throttled (Application dependent)
   6) 比多回转阀门更加易于自动化控制
   6) Easier to automate than multi-turn valves
   7) 比多回转阀门更加紧凑
   7) More compact than multi-turn valves
   8) 循环使用寿命更长
   8) Offers high cycle life

    缺点
   Disadvantages
   1) 温度范围受到阀座密封材料的限制
   1) Temperature range limited by seat material

    阀体结构
   Body Styles
   1) 整体式:没有潜在的阀体泄漏通道,但是要求采用缩径流道球体;因此,压降明显。无法维修。
   1) One-piece has no potential body leak path, but requires use of reduced port ball; thus, significant pressure drop. Not repairable.
   2) 两件侧装式:建筑物管道系统最常用结构。性价比最高。可配置不缩径全流道或标准流道球体。不易维修。
   2) Two-piece end entry is most common in building services. Best price &#118alue. Available full- or standard-port balls. Not recommended to be repaired.
   3) 三件式:成本最高的结构,但是拆解容易,具有管内可修性。可配置不缩径全流道或标准流道球体。
   3) Three-piece is more costly, but is easier to disassemble and offers in-line repairability. Available in full- or standard-port balls.
   4) 上装式:适用于某些工业领域,例如当要求在维修过程中,不能把阀体从管道上拆卸下来时,就需要这种结构的球阀。成本比两件式高。
   4) Top entry is preferred in some industrial applications where access for repair is required without removing body from the line. More costly than two-piece
style.


   端口尺寸
   Port Size
   1) 不缩径全流道球阀具有不影响整个管道压降的性能,在此方面,甚至比闸阀性能更加优异。
   1) Full-Port ball valves provide pressure drop equal to equivalent length of pipe, and even slightly better than gate valves.
   2) 标准(常规)流道球阀用于管道直径比管道公称通径小的管道,但是其流通能力仍然比截止阀好得多。
   2) Standard (conventional) port balls are up to one pipe size smaller than nominal pipe size, but still have significantly better flow than globe valves.
   3) 缩径流道球阀流通能力较差,不推荐在建筑物管道系统中使用,但是可用于有害物质传输的处理管道。
   3) Reduced port ball valves have more than one pipe size flow restriction and are not recommended in building services piping, but rather for process
piping in hazardous material transfer.

90o回转阀门的结构特点 (2)
Quarter-Turn Valve Design Detail (2)






  b) 蝶阀-弹性阀座
  b) Butterfly Valves - Resilient Seated

   优点-推荐
   Positive Features - Recommendations
   1) 无气泡关闭功能的弹性材料阀座
   1) Bubble-tight shut-off from resilient seats
   2) 快速90o回转开启/关闭,比多回转阀门更容易进行自动控制
   2) Quick 90° open/close, easier to automate than multi-turn valves
   3) 与其它种类的阀门相比,性价比最高
   3) Very cost-effective compared to alternate valve choices
   4) 具有很强的节流性能
   4) Broad range of throttling capabilities
   5) 几乎完全流通,压降比截止阀小
   5) Nearly full flow, less pressure drop than globe valves
   6) 阀内件材料的选择范围广泛,能够适应不同的流体环境
   6) Broad selection of trim materials to match different fluid conditions
   7) 比多回转阀门更加紧凑
   7) More compact than multi-turn valves
   8) 循环使用寿命更长
   8) Offers high cycle life

   缺点
   Disadvantages
   1) 不适用于蒸汽环境
   1) Not for use with steam
   2) 公称通径大于DN150时需要配置齿轮执行机构进行操作,以防止由于操作速度过快造成破坏性管道冲击。
   2) Gear operators needed larger than 6” to aid in operation and protect against operating too quickly and causing destructive line shock.

   阀体结构
   Body Styles
   1) 平板式(对夹式):固定在两个管道法兰之间。安装容易,但是不能作为隔断阀使用。
   1) Wafer-style held in place between two pipe flanges. Easy to install but cannot be used as isolation valve.
   2) 凸耳式:平板式阀体,但是具有螺纹凸耳,用于通过螺栓与125/150磅级法兰连接。采用有头螺栓,能够非常方便地在阀门两端进行安装。有些制造商设计的凸耳阀门具有在必要情况下,单独承担全部流体压力,并可在其中一侧拆卸管道的性能。
   2) Lug-style is a wafer body but has tapped lugs matching up to bolt circle of Class 125/150 flanges. Easily installed with cap screws from either side. Lug-style designs from some manufacturers permit dropping the pipe from one side and the valve will hold full pressure when needed. (Dead end service)
   3) 管状蝶阀:采用铸铁管接头直接与管道连接。管状阀门安装最容易。
   3) Grooved butterfly valves direct connect to pipe using iron pipe size couplings. Grooved valves are easiest to install.
   4) 法兰蝶阀:结构长度符合美国国家标准化组织ANSI B16.10、125磅级和150磅级标准的球阀、闸阀和旋塞阀。
   4) Flanged butterfly valves face to face dimension conforms to ANSI Standard B16.10 and Materials Class 125 and 150 ball, gate and plug valves.

 
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